Yakutian Horses and Pallas’s Cats: Adaptation to Extreme Environments

Good morning, all! It’s the second Saturday of the month, which means it’s time for a science post. This month, with winter approaching, I thought I would turn my attention to a couple of animals that are well adapted to cold environments: the Yakutian horse and the Pallas’s cat.

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The Yakutian horse is a breed of horse that lives in the Yakut region of Siberia; the Pallas’s cat is a species (Otocolobus manul) with a widespread range, from the Caspian Sea to northern India to China and Mongolia. Both these mammals show some common adaptations to cold environments, like small size (Yakutian horses are a bit smaller than most horses, and Pallas’s cats are only the size of a house cat) and long fur. According to the BBC, ancient woolly mammoths had similar adaptations, which enabled them to survive during the ice age.

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A new genomic study (reported by the same BBC article linked to above) has indicated that Yakutian horses evolved from Genghis Khan’s Mongolian horses in less than 800 years, basically the blink of an eye. Since they adapted to the harsh Siberian winters (with temperatures down to -94 degrees Fahrenheit), they’ve been indispensable to the Yakutian people, for food, clothing, and transportation.

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Pallas’s cats, in contrast, are wild. They live mostly in rocky areas at high altitudes (according to ARKive), and indeed, they’ve been found high up in the Himalayas where only snow leopards were thought to roam (see PBS’s “Nature: The Story of Cats”, episode 1). They’re active mostly at dawn and dusk, and hide in rock burrows the rest of the time to avoid predators. They’ve been known to inhabit burrows abandoned by other animals. To help them avoid predation, their fur changes color seasonally for camouflage.

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Here you can see just how fluffy the Pallas’s cat is.

 

That’s it for today! What do you think? Have you ever heard of these animals before? What do you think of them? Do you like winter as much as they do? Tell me in the comments!

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