The Synthetic Biology Equation: Engineering + Bioscience = The Future of Biotech

(Perhaps that title is a bit audacious; I don’t claim to be able to predict the future of anything. But it’s entirely possible that synth bio will play a big role in biotech in the future. Let’s explore that more below. . . .)

Good morning, everyone! I was traveling last week, which prevented my putting up this post on Saturday as usual, and I decided to postpone it till today.

One of the classes I took last semester was Biotechnology and Society, and I decided to write my final paper on synthetic biology after the teacher mentioned the first production of a self-replicating “man-made” cell by a group of scientists in California.

Before I dig into that a bit more, though, let me define synthetic biology (or synth bio for short): it is the full-scale application of engineering techniques to biological systems. How is it different from regular genetic engineering/GMO production, then? The answer lies in the scale of said engineering: for genetic engineering, it’s on the gene level, one or more genes plus regulatory elements (regulating the expression of the gene) within an organism. For synth bio, though, engineering is on the level of an entire chromosome or even a genome, either wholescale editing or rewriting from the ground up. Essentially, synth bio is genetic engineering on steroids.

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Stephane Leduc, author of La Biologie Synthetique

 

A little history: Synthetic biology was first conceived, if not put into practice, way back in 1912 when Stephane Leduc, a French scientist, published La Biologie Synthetique. In this book, Leduc stated that the consistent and controlled reproduction of natural processes seen in other sciences, like chemistry, was lacking in biology at his time. Synthetic biology couldn’t take off, though, without the development of molecular biology in the mid-1900s, starting with Crick and Watson’s discovery of DNA structure (a topic for another time). Then, the development of fast, easy sequencing sparked our current age of genomics, the study of whole genomes, and synthetic biology had all the tools it needed to become a practiced discipline.

This brings us up to recent developments. Just last year, a research group at the J. Craig Venter Institute, headed by Venter himself, succeeded in creating a self-replicating bacterium with a synthetic genome, the first of its kind. The bacterium, JCVI-syn3.0, has only what Venter’s team determined was the minimal genome necessary for life, a feat they accomplished by “mixing and matching” genes of the small bacterium Mycoplasma mycoides to find which ones a bacterium could live without. In future, Venter and his team see the use of similar synthetic bacteria not only to learn about life, but to engineer it for specific purposes, like biofuel production.

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A colony of JCVI-syn3.0

 

The question is: how synthetic is JCVI-syn3.0? Technically, it’s not really a man-made bacterium. Only the genome was man-made, and that was really only adapted from the genome of M. mycoides. The “shell” the genome was inserted into was simply a living bacterium with the genome removed. This is a big step for synthetic biology, but it has a long way to go before it is truly dictionary-definition synthetic.

What do you think? Have you heard of synthetic biology? Did you hear about the production of JCVI-syn3.0? Tell me in the comments!

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Bacteria and Bioplastics

Hello, everyone! It’s the second Saturday of the month, which means I am here with a science post. I’ve been taking a class about biotechnology (which actually ended this past week), so I’ve been finding various biotech things to give presentations about and so forth. Today’s topic, bacteria-produced bioplastics, was one of those biotech things.

What is bioplastic? I’m glad you asked! Bioplastics are biodegradable plastics which are being investigated to replace petroleum-based plastics, since they could reduce costs and environmental impacts of plastic use. A major type of bioplastic, which I’m going to focus on today, is the polyhydroxyalkoanates (PHAs for short). These are polyesters (a type of organic molecule) naturally produced in bacteria as reserves of carbon and energy. They can then be broken down when the bacterium needs the carbon or energy, which makes them truly biodegradable. (Fun fact: I read about a PhD student who got a certain bacterium to produce 80% of its weight in PHAs by using ice cream as a nutrient medium.)

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Alcaligenes eutrophus, a PHA-producing bacterium.

PHAs have many and varied potential applications. They have been proposed as a packaging for foods like cheese, as biodegradable containers for things like drugs and fertilizers, as a material for disposable items like razors, cups, and shampoo bottles, and in the medical field, to be used as a material for things like sutures and bone replacements. Their properties are similar to those of currently used plastics like polypropylene, which could make the transition smoother if they were to go into use.

 

The difficulty, up until recently, has not been getting the bacteria to make PHAs, but getting the PHAs out of the bacteria. Last month, however, it was reported that a Spanish research team has developed and patented a method for genetically engineering a predatory bacterium, Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus, to break down the PHA producers, but not the PHAs. A number of companies are already interested in using this method commercially; it could be used for extracting valuable enzymes and other proteins as well as for bioplastic production. This method is much safer and less expensive than previous methods that used things like chemical detergents to extract PHAs. I think it’s a big step forward in making PHAs practical.

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Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus, the predatory bacterium

 

Here are my sources if you want to learn more: http://bioplasticsinfo.com/polyhydroxy-alkonates/applications-of-pha-as-bioplastic/

http://www.clt.astate.edu/dgilmore/Research%20students/phas.htm

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/11/161130124150.htm

What do you think of this technology? Would you use a bioplastic? Have you ever heard of this before? Share in the comments!